Allies of World War I

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Allies of World War I
Military alliance
1914–1918
  •      Allied and Associated Powers (and their colonies)
  •      Central Powers (and their colonies)
  •      Neutral Powers

Principal allied and associated powers:

Until 1917:

Other allies:

Other co-belligerents:
Capital Not specified
Political structure Military alliance
Historical era World War I
 •  Established 1914
 •  Disestablished 1918
Succeeded by
Allies of World War II
European diplomatic alignments shortly before the war

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

The members of the original Triple Entente of 1907 were the French Republic, the British Empire and the Russian Empire. Italy ended its alliance with the Central Powers, arguing that Germany and Austria-Hungary started the war without prior consultation with all allies and that the alliance was only defensive in nature; it entered the war on the side of the Entente in 1915. Japan was another important member. Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Romania[2] were affiliated members of the Entente.[3]

The 1920 Treaty of Sèvres defines the Principal Allied Powers as the British Empire, French Republic, Italy and Japan. The Allied Powers comprised, together with the Principal Allied Powers, Armenia, Belgium, Greece, Hejaz, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene state and Czechoslovakia.[4]

The U.S. declaration of war on Germany, on 6 April 1917 was on the grounds that Germany had violated its neutrality by attacking international shipping, sabotaging munitions on American soil and the Zimmermann Telegram sent to Mexico.[5] It declared war on Austria-Hungary in December 1917.[6][7] The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than as a formal ally of France and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements".[8] Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war.[9]

The Dominions and Crown Colonies of the British Empire made great contributions to the Allied war effort, but did not have independent foreign policies in World War I with the British War Cabinet exercising operational control of British Empire forces. The Dominion governments did control recruiting, and removed personnel from front-line duties as they saw fit. From early 1917, the War Cabinet was superseded by the Imperial War Cabinet, which had Dominion representation. The Australian Corps and Canadian Corps were placed under the command of Australian and Canadian Lieutenant Generals John Monash and Arthur Currie,[10] respectively, who reported in turn to British generals.[citation needed] In April 1918, operational control of all Entente forces on the Western Front passed to the new supreme commander, Ferdinand Foch of France.

History[edit]

A 1914 Russian poster depicting the Triple Entente

The original alignment opposed to the Central Powers was the Triple Entente, which was formed by three great European powers:

The war began with the Austrian attack invasion of Serbia on 28 July 1914, in response to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The Austrian Empire followed with an attack on the Serbian ally Montenegro on 8 August.[citation needed] On the Western Front, the two neutral States of Belgium and Luxembourg were immediately occupied by German troops as part of the German Schlieffen Plan.

Of the two Low Countries involved in the war, Luxembourg chose to capitulate, and was viewed as a collaborationist state by the Entente powers: Luxembourg never became part of the Allies, and only narrowly avoided Belgium's efforts of annexation, at the conclusion of hostilities in 1919. On 23 August Japan joined the Entente, which then counted seven members.[citation needed]. The entrance of the British Empire brought Nepal into the war.

On 23 May 1915, Italy entered the war on the Entente side and declared war on Austria; previously, Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance but had remained neutral since the beginning of the conflict. In 1916, Montenegro capitulated and left the Entente, and two nations joined, Portugal and Romania.[citation needed]

On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war. Liberia, Siam and Greece also became allies. After the October Revolution, Russia left the alliance and ended formal involvement in the war, by the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in November effectively creating a separate peace with the Central Powers. This was followed by Romanian cessation of hostilities, however the Balkan State declared war on Central Powers again on 10 November 1918. The Russian withdrawal allowed for the final structure of the alliance, which was based on five Great Powers:

Following the Versailles conference, Britain, France, Italy and Japan became the permanent members of the League of Nations council. The United States, meant to be the fifth permanent member, left because the US Senate voted on 19 March 1920 against the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, thus preventing American participation in the League.

Statistics of the Allied Powers (1913) and enlisted soldiers during the war[11]
Population
(millions)
Land
(million km2)
GDP
($ billion)
Mobilized personnel
First Wave: 1914
Russian Empire Russia (inc. Poland) 173.2 21.7 257.7 12,000,0003
Finland 3.2 0.4 6.6
Total 176.4 22.1 264.3
French Republic France 39.8 0.5 138.7 8,410,0003
French colonies 48.3 10.7 31.5
Total 88.1 11.2 170.2
British Empire United Kingdom 46.0 0.3 226.4 6,211,9222
British colonies 380.2 13.5 257 1,440,4371[12]
British Dominions 19.9 19.5 77.8 1,307,0001
Total 446.1 33.3 561.2 8,689,000[13]
Empire of Japan Japan 55.1 0.4 76.5 800,0003
Japanese colonies[14] 19.1 0.3 16.3
Total 74.2 0.7 92.8
Yugoslav states[15] 7.0 0.2 7.2 760,0003
Second Wave (1915–16)
Kingdom of Italy Italy 35.6 0.3 91.3 5,615,0003
Italian colonies 2.0 2.0 1.3
Total 37.6 2.3 92.6
Portuguese Republic Portugal 6.0 0.1 7.4 100,0003
Portuguese colonies 8.7 2.4 5.2
Total 14.7 2.5 12.6
Kingdom of Romania 7.7 0.1 11.7 750,0003
Third Wave (1917–18)
United States of America United States 96.5 7.8 511.6 4,355,0003
overseas dependencies[16] 9.8 1.8 10.6
Total 106.3 9.6 522.2
Central American states[17] 9.0 0.6 10.6
Republic of the United States of Brazil 25.0 8.5 20.3 1,702[citation needed]
Kingdom of Greece 4.8 0.1 7.7 230,0003
Kingdom of Siam 8.4 0.5 7.0 1,2842
Republic of China 441.0 11.1 243.7
Republic of Liberia 1.5 0.1 0.9
Aggregate statistics of the Allied Powers (in 1913)[18]
Population
(millions)
Territory
(million km2)
GDP
($ billion)
November 1914
Allies, total 793.3 67.5 1,096.5
UK, France and Russia only 259.0 22.6 622.8
November 1916
Allies, total 853.3 72.5 1,213.4
UK, France and Russia only 259.0 22.6 622.8
November 1918
Allies, total 1,271.7 80.8 1,760.5
Percentage of world 70% 61% 64%
UK, France and USA only 182.3 8.7 876.6
Percentage of world 10% 7% 32%
Central Powers[19] 156.1 6.0 383.9
World, 1913 1,810.3 133.5 2,733.9

Major affiliated state combatants[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

War justifications[edit]

Denying Antwerp and Ostend in Flanders to a hostile force was a primary English, then later British, European foreign policy objective since the 1568 Dutch Revolt . Control allowed a foreign power to blockade the English Channel and stifle trade at will; preventing it was the whole point of the 1839 Treaty of London that created Belgium. In response to the Germans invasion of neutral Belgium, the United Kingdom declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914.[20] The British Empire held several semi-autonomous dominions that were automatically brought into the war effort as a result of the British declaration of war, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Newfoundland, and South Africa.

British Empire in 1914

Colonies and dependencies[edit]

In Europe[edit]

Gibraltar, Cyprus and Malta were British dependencies in Europe.

In Africa[edit]

The UK held several colonies, protectorates, and semi-autonomous dependencies at the time of World War I. In Eastern Africa the East Africa Protectorate, Nyasaland, both Northern and Southern Rhodesia, the Uganda Protectorate, were involved in conflict with German forces in German East Africa. In Western Africa, the colonies of Gold Coast and Nigeria were involved in military actions against German forces from Togoland and Kamerun. In Southwestern Africa, the semi-autonomous dominion of South Africa was involved in military actions against German forces in German South-West Africa.

In North America[edit]

Canada and Newfoundland were two autonomous dominions during the war that made major military contributions to the British war effort.

Other British dependent territories in the Americas included: British Honduras, the Falkland Islands, British Guiana, and Jamaica.

In Asia[edit]

The UK held large possessions in Asia, including the Indian Empire which was an assortment of British imperial authorities in the territory now defined as India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Pakistan.

Other British territories at the time included: British Malaya – referring to several Malay states under British control as a result of the Straits Settlements, North Borneo, Sri Lanka, and Hong Kong.

In Oceania[edit]

Australia and New Zealand were two autonomous dominions of the UK in Oceania during the war. Australia had become an independent nation state in 1901. Having strong cultural ties with the United Kingdom, the nations declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914.

Russia[edit]

Russian 76mm battery

In response to Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia in 1914, Russian government officials denounced the Austro-Hungarian invasion as an "ignoble war" on a "weak country".[21] Russian government official Nikolaĭ N. Shebeko stated: "the attack on Serbia by a powerful empire such as Austria, supposedly in order to defend its existence, cannot be understood by anyone in my country; it has been considered simply as a means of delivering a death-blow to Serbia."[21] Russia held close diplomatic relations with Serbia, and Russian foreign minister Sergey Sazonov suspected the events were a conspiracy between Austria-Hungary and Germany to expel Russian influence in the Balkans.[21] On 30 July 1914, Russia enacted a general mobilization. The day after general mobilization was enacted, Austria-Hungary's ally Germany declared war on Russia prior to expected Russian intervention against Austria-Hungary.

Following a raid by Ottoman warships on the Russian port of Odessa, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire in November 1914.[22]

France[edit]

French cavalry cross a river during the Battle of Verdun

After Germany declared war on Russia, France with its alliance with Russia prepared a general mobilization in expectation of war. On 3 August 1914, Germany declared war on France.[23]

Japan[edit]

Japanese marines at the German Kiautschou Bay concession in Tsingtao China

Japan declared war on Germany after it did not accept an ultimatum sent by Japan to Germany, demanding that Germany would remove armed German Merchant ships from Japanese and Chinese waters.[24] Japan did this to honor the alliance that they had with Great Britain. The Japanese government appealed to the Japanese public that Japan was not merely entering a "European War" on behalf of European powers, but that Japan was fighting on behalf of Asians against a belligerent European power, Germany, that Japan identified as the "source of evil in the Far East".[25] Thus as a result of this, Japan was following through with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.[25]

Italy[edit]

Antonio Salandra, Italian PM March 1914 - June 1916
General Luigi Cadorna Italian Chief of Staff July 1914 - November 1917

While the 1882 Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy was renewed at regular intervals, it was fatally compromised by the clash between Italian ambitions in the Adriatic and the Aegean with those of Austria-Hungary. Italian nationalists referred to Austrian-held Trieste and South Tyrol as 'the lost territories,' making an Alliance with Austria so controversial that its terms were kept secret until it expired in 1915.[26]

Alberto Pollio, Chief of Staff of the Italian Army was very pro-Austria but when he died on 1 July 1914, most of the prospects for Italian support died with him.[27] Prime Minister Antonio Salandra argued since the Alliance was defensive in nature, Austria's aggression against Serbia and Italy's exclusion from the decision-making process meant it was not obliged to join them.[28]

Italian caution made sense since France and Britain supplied or controlled the import of most of Italy's raw materials, including 90% of its coal.[28] Salandra described the process of determining which side Italy would take as "sacred egoism;' all sides expected the war to end before mid-1915 at the latest, making decision urgent.[29] He ordered Pollio's replacement, General Luigi Cadorna to begin moving Italian troops away from the frontier with France to the North-Eastern one with Austria.[30]

Under the April 1915 Treaty of London, Italy agreed to join the Entente in return for Italian-populated territories of Austria-Hungary and other concessions; in return, it declared war on Austria-Hungary in May 1915 as required, although not on Germany until 1916.[31] Italian resentment at the difference between the promises of 1915 and the actual results of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles would be powerful factors in the rise of Mussolini.[32]

Serbia[edit]

Serbian soldiers during World War I

Serbia was invaded by Austria-Hungary after Austria-Hungary placed a stringent ultimatum to the Serbian government demanding full compliance to an Austro-Hungarian investigation of complicity by the Serbian government in the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. Serbia agreed to most of Austria-Hungary's demands but because it did not fully comply, Austria-Hungary invaded.

Serbia had the diplomatic support of Russia, and both Serbia and Russia resented Austria-Hungary's absorption of Bosnia and Herzegovina that held a substantial Serb population. Serbia had expanded in size through its actions in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 when the Ottoman Empire's control in the Balkans collapsed.

During the war, Serbia justified the war as being the result of Austro-Hungarian imperialism towards Serbs and South Slavs, Serbia cooperated with Yugoslavists including the Yugoslav Committee who sought pan-South-Slav unification, particularly through liberating South Slavs from Austria-Hungary. In the Corfu Declaration in 1917, the Serbian government officially declared its intention to form a state of Yugoslavia.

The first two allied victories in the war were won by the Serbian army, on the mountains of Cer and Kolubara, in western Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian army was expelled from the country, suffering heavy losses. Serbia suffered great losses during the war, almost 50% of all men and around 30% of its entire population were killed.

Romania[edit]

Romanian 250 mm Negrei Model 1916 mortar at the National Military Museum
Vlaicu III
Romanian troops at Mărășești

Equal status with the main Allied Powers was one of the primary conditions for Romania's entry into the War. The Powers officially recognized this status through the 1916 Treaty of Bucharest.[33] Romania fought on 3 of the 4 European Fronts: Eastern, Balkan and Italian, fielding in total over 1,200,000 troops.[34]

Romanian military industry was mainly focused on converting various fortification guns into field and anti-aircraft artillery. Up to 334 German 53 mm Fahrpanzer guns, 93 French 57 mm Hotchkiss guns, 66 Krupp 150 mm guns and dozens more 210 mm guns were mounted on Romanian-built carriages and transformed into mobile field artillery, with 45 Krupp 75 mm guns and 132 Hotchkiss 57 mm guns being transformed into anti-aircraft artillery. The Romanians also upgraded 120 German Krupp 105 mm howitzers, the result being the most effective field howitzer in Europe at that time. Romania even managed to design and build from scratch its own model of mortar, the 250 mm Negrei Model 1916.[35]

Other Romanian technological assets include the building of Vlaicu III, the world's first aircraft made of metal.[36] The Romanian Navy possessed the largest warships on the Danube. They were a class of 4 river monitors, built locally at the Galați shipyard using parts manufactured in Austria-Hungary, and the first one launched was Lascăr Catargiu, in 1907.[37][38] The Romanian monitors displaced almost 700 tons, were armed with three 120 mm naval guns in 3 turrets, two 120 mm naval howitzers, four 47 mm anti-aircraft guns and two 6.5 machine guns.[39] The monitors took part in the Battle of Turtucaia and the First Battle of Cobadin. The Romanian-designed Schneider 150 mm Model 1912 howitzer was considered one of the most modern field guns on the Western Front.[40]

Romania's entry into the War in August 1916 provoked major changes for the Germans. General Erich von Falkenhayn was dismissed and sent to command the Central Powers forces in Romania, which enabled Hindenburg's subsequent ascension to power.[41] Due to having to fight against all of the Central Powers on the longest front in Europe (1,600 km) and with little foreign help (only 50,000 Russians aided 650,000 Romanians in 1916),[42] the Romanian capital was conquered that December. Vlaicu III was also captured and shipped to Germany, being last seen in 1942.[43] The Romanian administration established a new capital at Iași and continued to fight on the Allied side in 1917.[44] Despite being relatively short, the Romanian campaign of 1916 provided considerable respite for the Western Allies, as the Germans ceased all their other offensive operations in order to deal with Romania.[45] After suffering a tactical defeat against the Romanians (aided by Russians) in July 1917 at Mărăști, the Central Powers launched two counterattacks, at Mărășești and Oituz. The German offensive at Mărășești was soundly defeated, with German prisoners later telling their Romanian captors that German casualties were extremely heavy, and that they "had not encountered such stiff resistance since the battles of Somme and Verdun".[46] The Austro-Hungarian offensive at Oituz also failed. On 22 September, the Austro-Hungarian Enns-class river monitor SMS Inn was sunk by a Romanian mine near Brăila.[47][48] After Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and dropped out of the War, Romania was left surrounded by the Central Powers and eventually signed a similar treaty on 7 May 1918. Despite being forced to cede land to Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria, Romania ended up with a net gain in territory due to the Union with Bessarabia. On 10 November, Romania re-entered the War and fought a war with Hungary that lasted until August 1919.

Other affiliated state combatants[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Belgium had declared its neutrality when the war began, but Germany disregarded Belgium's neutrality and invaded the country in order to launch an offensive against the French capital of Paris. As a result, Belgium became a member of the Allies.

Brazil[edit]

Brazilian soldiers in World War I

Brazil entered the war in 1917 after the United States intervened on the basis of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare sinking its merchant ships, which Brazil also cited as a reason to enter the war fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. The First Brazilian Republic sent the Naval Division in War Operations that joined the British fleet in Gibraltar and made the first Brazilian naval effort in international waters. In compliance with the commitments made at the Inter-American Conference, held in Paris from November 20 to December 3, 1917, the Brazilian Government sent a medical mission composed of civilian and military surgeons to work in field hospitals of the European theater, a contingent of sergeants and officers to serve with the French army; Airmen from the Army and Navy to join the Royal Air Force, and the employment of part of the Fleet, primarily in the anti-submarine war.

Greece[edit]

The disagreement between the pro-German King Constantine I of Greece and the liberal Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos, regarding the country's stance, caused a National Schism, but eventually a united Greece joined the Allies in 1917, while Greek units were fighting at the Macedonian Front since 1916.

Montenegro[edit]

Montenegro had very close cultural and political connections with Serbia and had cooperated with Serbia in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. Montenegro joined the war against Austria-Hungary.

Nejd and Hasa[edit]

The Emirate of Nejd and Hasa agreed to enter the war as an ally of Britain in the Treaty of Darin on December 26, 1915.[49]

Idrisid Emirate of Asir[edit]

The Idrisid Emirate of Asir participated in the Arab revolt. Its Emir, Muhammad ibn Ali al-Idrisi, signed an agreement with the British and joined the Allies in May 1915.

Canadian Army recruitment poster

Major co-belligerent state combatants[edit]

United States[edit]

The United States declared war on Germany in April 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated U.S. neutrality by attacking international shipping with its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign.[5] The remotely connected Zimmermann Telegram of the same period, within which the Germans promised to help Mexico regain some of its territory lost to the U.S nearly seven decades before, was also a contributing factor. The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of France and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements".[8] Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war,[9] as did Austria-Hungary. Eventually, however, the United States also declared war on Austria-Hungary in December 1917, predominantly to help hard-pressed Italy.

Non-state combatants[edit]

Three non-state combatants, which voluntarily fought with the Allies and seceded from the constituent states of the Central Powers at the end of the war, were allowed to participate as winning nations to the peace treaties:[citation needed]

Leaders[edit]

Kingdom of Serbia Serbia[edit]

Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro[edit]

Russian Empire Russia (1914–1917)[edit]

Belgium Belgium[edit]

French Third Republic France[edit]

British Empire British Empire[edit]

Canada Dominion of Canada[edit]

Australia Commonwealth of Australia[edit]

British Raj Empire of India[edit]

Union of South Africa Union of South Africa[edit]

Dominion of New Zealand Dominion of New Zealand[edit]

Dominion of Newfoundland Dominion of Newfoundland[edit]

Empire of Japan Japan[edit]

Kingdom of Italy Italy (1915–1918)[edit]

Kingdom of Romania Romania (1916–1918)[edit]

First Portuguese Republic Portugal (1916–1918)[edit]

Kingdom of Greece Greece (1916/17–1918)[edit]

Greek war poster
  • Constantine I: King of Greece, he retired from the throne, due to Allied pressure, without formally resigning.
  • Alexander: King of Greece, he became King in 1917 after his father and brother retired from the throne.
  • Eleftherios Venizelos: Prime minister of Greece after 13 June 1917.
  • Panagiotis Danglis: Greek general of the Hellenic Army.

United States United States (1917–1918)[edit]

The use of naval convoys to transport U.S. troops to France, 1917.
The Siamese Expeditionary Forces in Paris, 1919.

Thailand Siam (Thailand) (1917–1918)[edit]

See main Article: Siam in World War I

First Brazilian Republic Brazil (1917–1918)[edit]

See main Article: Brazil during World War I

Armenia Armenia (1918)[edit]

Personnel and casualties[edit]

A pie-chart showing the military deaths of the Allied Powers.

These are estimates of the cumulative number of different personnel in uniform 1914–1918, including army, navy and auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were much smaller. Only a fraction of them were frontline combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of time each country was involved. (See also: World War I casualties)

Allied power Mobilized personnel Military Fatalities Wounded in action Total casualties Casualties as % of total mobilized
Australia 412,9531 61,928 (14.99%)[51] 152,171 214,099 52%
Belgium 267,0003 38,172 (14.29%)([52] 44,686 82,858 31%
Canada 628,9641 64,944 (10.32%)[53] 149,732 214,676 34%
France 8,410,0003 1,397,800 (16.62%)[54] 4,266,000 5,663,800 67%
Greece 230,0003 26,000 (11.30%)[55] 21,000 47,000 20%
India 1,440,4371 74,187 (5.15%)[56] 69,214 143,401 10%
Italy 5,615,0003 651,010 (11.59%)[57] 953,886 1,604,896 29%
Japan 800,0003 415 (0.05%)[58] 907 1,322 <1%
Monaco 80[59] 8 (10.00%)[59] 0 8[59] 10%
Montenegro 50,0003 3,000 (6.00%) 10,000 13,000 26%
Nepal 200,000[60] 30,670 (15.33%) 21,009 49,823 25%
New Zealand 128,5251 18,050 (14.04%)[61] 41,317 59,367 46%
Portugal 100,0003 7,222 (7.22%)[62] 13,751 20,973 21%
Romania 750,0003 250,000 (33.33%)[63] 120,000 370,000 49%
Russia 12,000,0003 1,811,000 (15.09%)[64] 4,950,000 6,761,000 56%
Serbia 707,3433 275,000 (38.87%)[65] 133,148 408,148 58%
Siam 1,2842 19 (1.48%) 0 19 2%
South Africa 136,0701 9,463 (6.95%)[66] 12,029 21,492 16%
United Kingdom 6,211,9222 886,342 (14.26%)[67] 1,665,749 2,552,091 41%
United States 4,355,0003 53,402 (1.23%)[68] 205,690 259,092 5.9%
Total 42,244,409 5,741,389 12,925,833 18,744,547 49%

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History: Volume I: Albania and King Zog ... By Owen Pearson
  2. ^ Karel Schelle, The First World War and the Paris Peace Agreement, GRIN Verlag, 2009, p. 24
  3. ^ "First World War.com - Feature Articles - The Causes of World War One". 
  4. ^ "Section I, Articles 1 - 260 - World War I Document Archive". 
  5. ^ a b "First World War.com - Primary Documents - U.S. Declaration of War with Germany, 2 April 1917". 
  6. ^ Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications Archived 10 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ H.J.Res.169: Declaration of War with Austria-Hungary, WWI, United States Senate
  8. ^ a b Tucker&Roberts pp. 1232, 1264
  9. ^ a b Tucker&Roberts p. 1559
  10. ^ Perry (2004), p.xiii
  11. ^ S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. Retrieved 2015-03-16. 
  12. ^ Indian Army only
  13. ^ Baker, Chris. "Some British Army statistics of the Great War". www.1914-1918.net. Archived from the original on 2017-07-18. Retrieved 2017-08-07. 
  14. ^ Korea, Formosa, Kwantung and Sakhalin
  15. ^ Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Hercegovina
  16. ^ As Hawaii and Alaska were not yet U.S. states, they are included in the dependencies
  17. ^ Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama
  18. ^ S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. Retrieved 2015-03-16. 
  19. ^ Germany (and colonies), Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
  20. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1562.
  21. ^ a b c Jelavich, Barbara. Russia's Balkan Entanglements, 1806–1914. P262
  22. ^ Afflerbach, Holger; David Stevenson, David. An Improbable War: The Outbreak of World War 1 and European Political Culture. Berghan Books. 2012. P. 293.
  23. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1556.
  24. ^ http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/japan-gives-ultimatum-to-germany
  25. ^ a b Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P155.
  26. ^ Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3. 
  27. ^ Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3. 
  28. ^ a b Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194.
  29. ^ Clark, Mark (2008). Modern Italy, 1871 to the Present (Longman History of Italy). Routledge. p. 219. ISBN 978-1405823524. 
  30. ^ Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3. 
  31. ^ Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194-198.
  32. ^ Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. pp. 378–382. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3. 
  33. ^ Charles Upson Clark, United Roumania, p. 135
  34. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, Encyclopedia of World War I, p. 273
  35. ^ Adrian Storea, Gheorghe Băjenaru, Artileria română în date și imagini (Romanian artillery in data and pictures), pp. 40, 49, 50, 54, 59, 61, 63, 65 and 66 (in Romanian)
  36. ^ Jozef Wilczynski, Technology in Comecon: Acceleration of Technological Progress Through Economic Planning and the Market, p. 243
  37. ^ International Naval Research Organization, Warship International, Volume 21, p. 160
  38. ^ Frederick Thomas Jane, Jane's Fighting Ships, p. 343
  39. ^ Robert Gardiner, Conway's All the World Fighting Ships 1906–1921, p. 422
  40. ^ Adrian Storea, Gheorghe Băjenaru, Artileria română în date și imagini (Romanian artillery in data and pictures), p. 53 (in Romanian)
  41. ^ Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, p. 282
  42. ^ Glenn E. Torrey, Romania and World War I, p. 58
  43. ^ Michael Hundertmark, Holger Steinle, Phoenix aus der Asche – Die Deutsche Luftfahrt Sammlung Berlin, pp. 110–114 (in German)
  44. ^ România în anii primului război mondial (Romania in the years of the First World War), Volume II, p. 830 (in Romanian)
  45. ^ Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, p. 287
  46. ^ King of Battle: Artillery in World War I, p. 347
  47. ^ Angus Konstam, Gunboats of World War I, p. 29
  48. ^ René Greger, Austro-Hungarian warships of World War I, p. 142
  49. ^ Abdullah I of Jordan; Philip Perceval Graves (1950). Memoirs. p. 186. 
  50. ^ first Canadian to attain the rank of full general
  51. ^ Australia casualties
    Included in total are 55,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85-.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4-
    Totals include 2,005 military deaths during 1919–215-. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330 Army war dead1,237.
  52. ^ Belgium casualties
    Included in total are 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85 Figures include 13,716 killed and 24,456 missing up until Nov.11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete." 1,352.
  53. ^ Canada casualties
    Included in total are 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.6,85
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 3,789 military deaths during 1919–21 and 150 Merchant Navy deaths5-. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office report listed 56,639 Army war dead1,237.
  54. ^ France casualties
    Included in total are 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. Totals include the deaths of 71,100 French colonial troops. 7,414-Figures include war related military deaths of 28,600 from 11/11/1918 to 6/1/1919.7,414
  55. ^ Greece casualties
    Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing8,339, The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000 including 15,000 military deaths due disease6,160
  56. ^ India casualties
    British India included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
    Included in total are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 15,069 military deaths during 1919–21 and 1,841 Canadian Merchant Navy dead5. The 1922 War Office report listed 64,454 Army war dead1,237
  57. ^ Italy casualties
    Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85
    Figures of total military dead are from a 1925 Italian report using official data9.
  58. ^ War dead figure is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army10,111.
  59. ^ a b c "Monaco 11-Novembre : ces Monégasques morts au champ d'honneur". 
  60. ^ Jain, G (1954) India Meets China in Nepal, Asia Publishing House, Bombay P92
  61. ^ New Zealand casualties
    Included in total are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 702 military deaths during 1919–215. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army war dead1,237.
  62. ^ Portugal casualties
    Figures include the following killed and died of other causes up until Jan.1, 1920; 1,689 in France and 5,332 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW1,354.
  63. ^ Romania casualties
    Military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office"6,64. Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
  64. ^ Russia casualties
    Included in total are 1,451,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. The estimate of total Russian military losses was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis.6,46–57
  65. ^ Serbia casualties
    Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.The estimate of total combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis6,62–64
  66. ^ South Africa casualties
    Included in total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 380 military deaths during 1919–2115. The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army war dead1,237.
  67. ^ UK and Crown Colonies casualties
    Included in total are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Military dead total includes 34,663 deaths during 1919–21 and 13,632 British Merchant Navy deaths5. The 1922 War Office report listed 702,410 war dead for the UK1,237, 507 from "Other colonies"1,237 and the Royal Navy (32,287)1,339.
    The British Merchant Navy losses of 14,661 were listed separately 1,339; The 1922 War Office report detailed the deaths of 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK1,674–678.
  68. ^ United States casualties
    Official military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are 116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 other deaths.[1] Archived 25 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine., The US Coast Guard lost an additional 192 dead 11,481.

References[edit]

Sources[edit]

See List of World War I books

  • Ellis, John and Mike Cox. The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants (2002)
  • Esposito, Vincent J. The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900–1918 (1997) despite the title covers entire war; online maps from this atlas
  • Falls, Cyril. The Great War (1960), general military history
  • Gooch, G. P. Recent Revelations Of European Diplomacy (1940), 475pp summarizes memoirs of major participants
  • Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. Researching World War I: A Handbook (2003), historiography, stressing military themes
  • Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War (1995)
  • Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004)
  • Trask, David F. The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917–1918 (1961)
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 volumes) (2005), online at eBook.com
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)